However, pit organs work a little differently than pinhole cameras in that incoming radiation does not strike a single point on the membrane. Because the pit hole is very large compared to the membrane size, the radiation strikes many points. When detecting pointlike and even non-pointlike objects, it’s nearly impossible to tell the location of the heat source. Until now, scientists did not know how snakes could use this heat vision to make accurate attacks on their prey. Sichert, Friedel and van Hemmen confronted this paradox—that the optical quality of the infrared vision is much too blurry to allow snakes to strike prey with the observed accuracy of about 5 degrees. In order to develop an algorithm to explain the paradox, the scientists decided to work backward: by using solely the heat distribution on the pit organ membrane, they reconstructed the original 3D spatial heat distribution (e.g. rabbit shape, as shown in the figure). Because they used very simple computations similar to those of snakes, the group generated an image similar to what the snake “sees” with its neuronal map via its network of synapses.By including several variables, including background noise, the snakes’ measurement errors, and correlation of the input signals, the scientists then developed a neuronal algorithm that accurately reconstructed the heat image from the membrane. Whereas the group found that snakes have a fairly high input-noise tolerance, they found that one of the most vital requirements is accurate detectors and the ability to detect edges in the images produced on the pit membrane.“A heat distribution in 3-dimensional space causes a heat image on the pit membrane that, by the very nature of the big pit hole, is heavily blurred,” said Sichert. “A superposition of edge detectors in the brain can now reconstruct the heat distribution by using the whole image on the membrane for each point in space to be reconstructed. So reconstruction is possible because the information is still available in the blurred image on the pit membrane, where the receptors are.”In fact, Sichert added that snakes’ heat vision presents such a clear image when reconstructed that it surpasses even many human devices. “The infrared system of snakes is still as good as—and, in fact, far better than—any technical uncooled infrared camera with a similar number of detector cells,” he said.Citation: Sichert, Andreas B., Friedel, Paul and van Hemmen, J. Leo. “Snake’s Perspective on Heat: Reconstruction of Input Using an Imperfect Detection System.” Physical Review Letters. 97, 068105 (2006).By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Explore further The detection system, which consists of cavities located on each side of the head called “pit organs,” operates on a principle similar to that of a pinhole camera, explain scientists Andreas Sichert, Paul Friedel and J. Leo van Hemmen in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. A pinhole camera is a camera without a lens, where light from an image passes through a very small hole. Similarly, a pit organ’s aperture is about 1 mm—large enough to allow the snake to quickly detect moving prey. Some scientists (de Cock Buning) even suggest that pythons—a type of boid—have a variety of differently shaped pit organs, each serving a different biological function.“The information of the infrared and the visual system are both represented in the optic tectum,” Sichert told PhysOrg.com. “This information forms a neuronal map, where, for example, the front part of the optic tectum represents the part of visual space in front of the snake. How exactly the two systems merge is as yet unknown. In the optic tectum, six classes of tectal cells have been identified that respond to infrared and visual stimuli in different ways. So a snake can get additional information such as ‘is a moving visible object warm (e.g., a warm-blooded animal) or cold?’ In case of bad optical conditions (most prominent example is darkness), it can of course ‘see’ warm (or cold) objects.” Researchers make a water filter from the sapwood in tree branches The image at left shows a figure as captured by a snake’s pit organ. When Sichert and colleagues applied their algorithm (similar to calculations in a snake’s brain), they reconstructed the image of a rabbit at right. (The illustration is based on a photo and does not correspond to a realistic thermal profile.) Image credit: Sichert, Andreas, et al. Call it a sixth sense, or evolution’s gift to these cold-blooded reptiles: some snakes have infrared vision. Also called “heat vision,” the infrared rays, which have longer wavelengths than those of visible light, signify the presence of warm-blooded prey in 3 dimensions, which helps snakes aim their attacks. Pit vipers and boids, the two snake types that possess this ability, have heat-sensitive membranes that can detect the difference in temperature between a moving prey—such as a running mouse—and its surroundings on the scale of milliKelvins. The scientists explained that typical prey, such as mice and rabbits, have a surface temperature of about 25 degrees C and emit body heat at wavelengths under 75 micrometers, in the infrared range. “If the radiation intensity hitting the membrane at some point is larger than the emitted thermal radiation of the membrane itself, the membrane heats up at that location,” the scientists reported in their study. In pit vipers, which have only two pit holes (one in front of each eye), a block of about 1,600 sensory cells lie on a membrane which has a field of view of about 100 degrees. This means the snake’s brain would receive an image resolution of about 2.5 degrees for pointlike objects, such as eyes, which are one of the hottest points on mammals. The head of this pit viper shows a nostril, pit hole and eye (left to right). In the sketch at right, radiation enters the pit organ and hits a heat-sensitive membrane. Because point-like objects spread out into disc-shaped images on the membrane, images are blurry. Scientists recently found that edge detectors in the brain must reconstruct the heat distribution from blurry images to inform the snake of greater detail of its surroundings. Image credit: Sichert, Andreas, et al. Citation: Snakes’ heat vision enables accurate attacks on prey (2006, August 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-08-snakes-vision-enables-accurate-prey.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
“We hope to apply quantum pumping to quantum computing architecture,” Ari Mizel, a professor at Penn State tells PhysOrg.com. In a world where scientists are striving to build quantum computing mechanisms and processes, various blueprints are on the table. And one of the integral parts of any quantum computing scheme is entanglement. Along with his student Sungjun Kim at Penn State and his postdoctoral researcher Kunal Das, now an assistant professor at Fordham University, Mizel proposes a quantum pumping method of delivering entangled electron pairs for use in quantum computing. A method that provides electron pairs and eliminates the background noise associated with single electron transport. Their findings are published in a Letter titled “Controlled Flow of Spin-Entangled Electrons via Adiabatic Quantum Pumping,” in Physical Review Letters.“Quantum pumping,” explains Mizel, “is a lot like swallowing. Electrons are in a channel, and as the walls deform periodically, it pushes stuff down.” Quantum pumping itself is not brand new, although the idea is a relatively recent development. Different experimental groups have been working with quantum pumping and use it to push charge or individual electrons with spin. What is different about the model of Kim, Das, and Mizel is that it would work by gathering paired electrons only, rather than “grabbing” single electrons and pumping them as well. Mizel’s team proposes a quantum pumping method that eliminates the transport of these single electrons that can provide background noise and increase decoherence.“We worked out a way to grab a couple of carriers at a time by changing interactions between the carriers,” says Mizel. The channels that hold the electrons are contorted, and the oscillations force the electron pairs through, carrying entanglement. Mizel explains, “The energy of individual electrons is not changed by the contortions. There is a counterbalance, so the individual electrons don’t feel the change. The electron pairs, though, feel it and get mushed closer together. Then the oscillations force them down and through.”This method would make it easier to eliminate non-entangled electrons. Right now, the background noise they create either has to be accounted for, or scientists attempt to catch and remove individual electrons. With this method devised by Mizel, Kim and Das, there would be no need to try to remove individual electrons; the carriers would just leave them behind, creating better entanglement. “There would be a stream of pairs, an individual electron will only feel contortion if it’s in proximity to a second electron. Then the carriers would be pushed down in groups.”Mizel admits that right now, this idea is in the theoretical stage. “We try to talk to people at conferences, and we’re familiar with who’s been doing quantum pumping in the past. Hopefully we can get some interest in this.” And it shouldn’t be that difficult. While Mizel concedes that this method of quantum pumping would be challenging to instigate, he also points out that it is not far beyond current scientific capabilities. “This doesn’t require any bold, brand new technology,” he insists. “It’s not far outside the possibilities. It would be interesting to see what could be achieved by this method.”Citation: Kunal K. Das, et al., Controlled Flow of Spin-Entangled Electrons via Adiabatic Quantum Pumping, Physical Review Letters, 97, 096602 (2006)By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Citation: A New Kind of Quantum Pump (2006, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-09-kind-quantum.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Digitally programmable perovskite nanowire-block copolymer composites
© 2013 Phys.org Journal information: arXiv O:H-O bond in water ice. Credit: arXiv:1310.6514 [physics.chem-ph] It’s long been known that warm water freezes faster than cooler water, (known as the Mpemba effect) going all the way back to Aristotle, but until now, despite a lot of effort by many scientists over thousands of years, no one has been able to offer a reasonable explanation as to why it happens. Now, the team in Singapore appears to have solved the riddle—it’s due, they claim, to the small amount of energy stored in stretched hydrogen bonds.As everyone knows, water molecules have one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms—all held together by covalent bonds (the sharing of electrons). What’s also known is that with water molecules, hydrogen atoms are also attracted to the oxygen atoms in other nearby water molecules—a force called a hydrogen bond. But, at the same time, the water molecules as a whole are repelled by one another. The team in Singapore has noted that the warmer water gets, the more distance there is between the water molecules due to the repellant force between them. That they say, forces the hydrogen bonds to become stretched out, and stretching out a bond means that there is energy being stored. That energy, the researchers suggest, is released as the water is cooled allowing the molecules to become closer to one another, and (as every chemistry student knows) giving up energy means cooling.Warm water has more hydrogen bond stretching going on than cool water, thus it stores more energy, and has more to release when exposed to freezing temperatures. That is why, the researchers say, it freezes faster than cool water.At this point, the claims by the research team are still theory—they or others will still need to find a way to prove what they’ve suggested is true before the scientific community will deem the mystery of warm water freezing, solved once and for all. Water found to be an ideal lubricant for nanomachines Citation: Researchers claim to have discovered why warm water freezes faster than cooler water (2013, November 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-11-faster-cooler.html (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University believes they have solved the mystery of why warm water freezes faster than cooler water. It has to do with the way energy is stored in the hydrogen bonds between water molecules they suggest in their paper which they’ve uploaded to the preprint server arXiv. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further More information: O:H-O Bond Anomalous Relaxation Resolving Mpemba Paradox, arXiv:1310.6514 [physics.chem-ph] arxiv.org/abs/1310.6514AbstractWe demonstrate that the Mpemba paradox arises intrinsically from the release rate of energy initially stored in the covalent H-O part of the O:H-O bond in water albeit experimental conditions. Generally, heating raises the energy of a substance by lengthening and softening all bonds involved. However, the O:H nonbond in water follows actively the general rule of thermal expansion and drives the H-O covalent bond to relax oppositely in length and energy because of the inter-electron-electron pair coupling [J Phys Chem Lett 4, 2565 (2013); ibid 4, 3238 (2013)]. Heating stores energy into the H-O bond by shortening and stiffening it. Cooling the water as the source in a refrigerator as a drain, the H-O bond releases its energy at a rate that depends exponentially on the initially storage of energy, and therefore, Mpemba effect happens. This effect is formulated in terms of the relaxation time tau to represent all possible processes of energy loss. Consistency between predictions and measurements revealed that the tau drops exponentially intrinsically with the initial temperature of the water being cooled.
Citation: Study shows isopods may dampen impact of global warming on forest soil (2015, May 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-isopods-dampen-impact-global-forest.html (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers working in a forest in Massachusetts has found that the impact of global warming on forest soil might be less than predicted due to isopod activity in the same soil. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers describe their study and what they learned about the interaction between forest fungi and isopods. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org More information: Biotic interactions mediate soil microbial feedbacks to climate change, Thomas W. Crowther, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1502956112AbstractDecomposition of organic material by soil microbes generates an annual global release of 50–75 Pg carbon to the atmosphere, ∼7.5–9 times that of anthropogenic emissions worldwide. This process is sensitive to global change factors, which can drive carbon cycle–climate feedbacks with the potential to enhance atmospheric warming. Although the effects of interacting global change factors on soil microbial activity have been a widespread ecological focus, the regulatory effects of interspecific interactions are rarely considered in climate feedback studies. We explore the potential of soil animals to mediate microbial responses to warming and nitrogen enrichment within a long-term, field-based global change study. The combination of global change factors alleviated the bottom-up limitations on fungal growth, stimulating enzyme production and decomposition rates in the absence of soil animals. However, increased fungal biomass also stimulated consumption rates by soil invertebrates, restoring microbial process rates to levels observed under ambient conditions. Our results support the contemporary theory that top-down control in soil food webs is apparent only in the absence of bottom-up limitation. As such, when global change factors alleviate the bottom-up limitations on microbial activity, top-down control becomes an increasingly important regulatory force with the capacity to dampen the strength of positive carbon cycle–climate feedbacks. As the planet heats up, scientists around the world have been trying to predict what will happen to its various parts, one of which is soil. When ordinary soil grows warmer, microbes in it multiply and get busy munching dead plant material in it, which means they cause more carbon to be released from the soil into the air. This is a really big deal because soil actually releases almost ten times as much carbon into the atmosphere as human activities. But there is more to the story, the researchers with this new effort discovered—bugs play a role as well.If microbes in the soil multiply, the team wondered, what happens with the bugs that live in the soil that feed on them? To find out, they ventured into the Harvard Forest Long-Term Ecological Research site and set up various temperature controlled chambers seeded with various amounts of nitrogen, a type of fungi known as cords, and some isopods (pill bugs). Three months later they came back to see what had happened. They found that as expected the fungi thrived in the warmer chambers in the absence of pill bugs (especially if there was more nitrogen) but in the warmed chambers that had both, the level of fungus was approximately the same as a control group, which suggested that the pill bugs had prevented a fungus population increase, which in turn suggested the pill bugs had prevented an increase of carbon release from the soil.The researchers contend that their study results indicate that dire predictions of run-away global warming due to increased carbon release from soil around the planet, may not be sound—instead, they believe it might be tempered by microbe eating bugs—something that is not currently being accounted for in models created to predict carbon levels in the future. Explore further Credit: Wikipedia. Study finds that soil carbon may not be as stable as previously thought
Well, to start with, nothing that Malhotra showcased on finale show of Day II can exactly be called new. The show was to promote his works with the Mijwan Welfare Society, the NGO founded by poet and lyricist Kaifi Azmi. We expected more Bollywood touch but only got Parineeti Chopra walk the ramp in a lehenga and Salman Khan’s ex-flame Sangeeta Bijlani on the front row. The show started with men showcasing bandhgalas and sherwanis with lots of chikankari work which has been done by girls from Mijwan. Malhotra used khadi, silks, velvets to create jackets, trapeze pants, saris, knee-length kurtas and lehengas.
From cracking jokes to business deals, we Indians love talking, and we talk about everything under the sun. Let’s for a change today talk about something as important as life itself – Water. Should we care? We must, each one of us, says Vivek Mishra MD/Technical Head Premium Pools. When so much is happening around us, don’t you think it’s time we as individuals contribute in our own capacities before we actually reach a stage when we would either be fighting or paying for water as a luxury item. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Water conservation has had negative connotations for many people because it unintentionally implies hardship and inconvenience associated with it. However, conserving water is not simply a matter of using less water through restrictions. It is about careful management of water supply sources, use of water saving technologies, reduction of excessive demand and many other actions. Water conservation is the responsibility of both water users and suppliers. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixWith pools, the only way to ensure happiness is by taking care of durability, comfort and long term cost benefits. This can only be done by choosing the right builder at the onset. Hardly people in India realise that ideally a pool should never be emptied. In a pool with proper filtration and plumbing, water is changed only a couple of years. In Indian climate conditions one can consider emptying the pool to harvest rain water. Given that they are built right, pools can help. But a bad pool can leave you helpless.
A warm farewell to Delhi International Film Festival (DIFF) 2014 was given by many eminent personalities like Tigmanshu Dhulia, Meera, Taslima Nasreen, Khalid Mahmood Mithu, OP Mishra (director of NDMC), Vinod Goyal (Commissioner of Customs in Central Exercise), Sangeeta Gupta (Commissioner of Income Tax), Bouthaina Al (Deputy Chief of Mission Morocco Embassy, India), Rajeev Gupta (actor) and Bharati Taneja. A total of 28 awards in various categories that includes films, art, literature, photography and fashion were given at the grand finale that took place at NDMC Convention Centre in the Capital. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The closing ceremony began with National Award Winner Filmmaker, Tigmanshu Dhulia receiving Special Honor award for his contribution to Indian Cinema. Tigmanshu who is the brand ambassador and founder member for DIFF, addressed the media and stressed upon the fact of creating a film city in Delhi and the support the kid on the block DIFF 2014.On receiving the best actress Award Meera Ali, expressed herself, “I am glad to receive this Award at the Delhi International Film Festival, I am thankful to India for giving me this award, my first award by India. I was honoured with many awards in my country Pakistan, but here I am really grateful to Ram Kishore Parcha ji for honouring me and all credit goes to Khalid who made a fabulous film”. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixDIFF 2014 was planned as an eight Day event and showcased 250 films from more than 45 nations. It was an initiative by ‘The Social Circle, A Society for Cause and – A step toward inclusiveness’ to showcase the best of Cinema, Art and Literature from across the globe.Started in the year 2012, the advisory board for this festival is headed by Dada Sahab Phalke awardee Adoor Gopal Krishnan. Working closely with him are some of the greats of Indian Cinema namely National award winning director Tigmanshu Dhulia, Anurag Kashyap, Anooj Kapoor, Mohan Agashe, Manoj Bajpai, Shriram Raghwan, N. Chandra, Sandeep Marwah, Shailesh Loadha, , Arvind Gaur with Jamal Shah and Satish Anand from Pakistan. Awards was given in various competitive categories as the ‘Life Time Achievement Award’ was presented to Subhash Ghai, ‘Special Honour Award’ to veteran actor Biswajeet and a special award called ‘Minar-e-Dilli’ was conferred to Olympic Medallist, Sushil Kumar.The festival began with Ilan Yagoda’s Israeli film The Neighbourhood and a short Greek film The Sun and The Wind directed by Thansis Neophotolistos. Critically acclaimed film, Zinda Bhaag from Pakistan starring Naseeruddin Shah and directed by Meenu Gaur was the closing film for this edition of the festival. The festival also screened films on social issues, book launches, and workshops on wildlife photography and animation and special Seminar to promote Delhi as Film City.
Kolkata: The hike in the fare of bus and other public transport vehicles was implemented on Monday, with most of the commuters accepting it.The state government was compelled to give its nod for increasing the fare of bus and other modes of transport, as the Centre “remained indifferent” in bringing down the diesel price.The decision to increase the bus fare was taken following a high level meeting held in the state secretariat Nabanna. Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, the state Transport minister Suvendu Adhikari and representatives of bus operators were present in the meeting. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAdhikari had apologised to the people of Bengal, stating that they had to give its nod for increasing the bus fare despite their unwillingness, as the Centre has done nothing to bring down the prices of diesel, despite repeated requests.It was on June 8 that the state Transport department had issued the notification, finally declaring the hike in the fare. The minimum bus and mini-bus fare was increased to Rs 7 and Rs 8 respectively. At the same time, the minimum taxi fare increased to Rs 30 and it is for the first 2 km. At the same time, taxi fare for every additional 0.2 km has become Rs 3 and the luggage charge has become Rs 5. Similarly, there was minimum increase in the fare for tram and ferry services as well. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedWith the news spread about the increase in fare, the commuters were prepared to pay more to travel from one point to another. The new fare chart was put up in all the buses and commuters were found checking the same before paying their fare on the first day after the fare was increased. Taxi drivers were also found explaining to the commuters the increase in the fare.Madhumita Ghosh, teacher of a private school, said: “The state government had nothing to do apart from increasing the fare as buses need diesel to ply and its price has skyrocketed.”Manojit Ghosal, a helper of a private bus, said: “The increase in the fare has not left any affect on the number of passengers.”
The handloom sector plays a very important role in the country’s economy. It is one of the largest economic activity providing direct employment to over 70 lakhs persons engaged in weaving and allied activities. Handloom Industry is the symbol of
Jayadityavir Singh, a student of The Doon School, Chand Bagh, Dehra Dun has come up with an initiative which uses plastic bottles filled with mud and other wastes instead of bricks for the construction of homes. Titled-Project Plastech, the main focus is to cut down costs of construction in which bricks is an integral part.“In this initiative we fill plastic bottles with any form of sand or waste and then we use these bottles as substitutes for bricks,” said Jayadityavir Singh. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’He reveals that Plastech is an initiative that aims at working towards providing sustainable cost-effective housing from a completely different perspective. This initiative places emphasis on the use of plastic bottles as substitutes for bricks, thereby cutting down total costs by a significant amount. It started for the sole purpose of providing housing cheaply for the underprivileged and the needy. The economic aspect as well as the relative cost cuts serve as great pluses from which this initiative can appeal to the masses. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHe reveals the level of skepticism he had to face regarding this project, he said: “Yes, we tend to have a large amount of skeptics when we describe our technology, but as you continue to read and see our various projects, it will be clear that we, indeed, know what we’re talking about. This initiative has several other advantages, the use of plastic bottles mean there will be a significant reduction of bricks being baked, minimising the carbon dioxide emissions.” A great problem faced by farmers and agriculturists in our country today is the lack of top soil cover in states to provide adequate incomes for farmers and people related with agriculture in India as a whole. This is primarily due to majority of farmers selling off top soil to brick kilns. These kilns require top clay soil in order to bake bricks, but this has adverse affects on the yieldsof the land.It tends to amplify into butterfly effect hampering the productivity per hectare of farmers all around the country and obviously pushes the productivity of the country backward in terms of yields per hectare.